Molecular phylogenetic relationships and phenotypic diversity in miniaturized toadlets, genus Brachycephalus (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephalidae)

Publication year: 2011
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 13 June 2011

Rute B.G., Clemente-Carvalho , Julia, Klaczko , S., Ivan Perez , Ana C.R., Alves , Célio F.B., Haddad , …

Toadlets of the genus Brachycephalus are endemic to the Atlantic rainforests of southeastern and southern Brazil. The 14 species currently described have snout–vent lengths less than 18 mm and are thought to have evolved through miniaturization: an evolutionary process leading to an extremely small adult body size. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for Brachycephalus, using a multilocus approach based on two nuclear (Rag-1 and Tyr) and three mitochondrial (Cyt b, 12S, and 16S rRNA) gene regions. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using a partitioned Bayesian analysis of concatenated sequences and the hierarchical Bayesian method (BEST) that estimates species…

Graphical abstract

 Graphical abstract:  Highlights: ► Phylogenetic relationships of Brachycephalus based on concatenated and BEST methods. ► Concatenated tree was resolved whereas BEST tree has reduced support. ► Discordances between individual gene trees, concatenated, and BEST tree. ► Marked variation in cranial shape which is significantly associated with genetic distances.